State News : North Carolina

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NWCDN Members regularly post articles and summary judgements in workers’ compensations law in your state.  


Select a state from the dropdown menu below to scroll through the state specific archives for updates and opinions on various workers’ compensation laws in your state.


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North Carolina

TEAGUE CAMPBELL DENNIS & GORHAM, LLP

  919-873-1814

Written by Tracey Jones 

Revised Guidelines for In-Person Industrial Commission Hearings

The Industrial Commission has revised its in-person hearing guidelines to reflect the most recent guidance from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

In-Person Deputy Commissioner Hearing Guidelines

Any person with symptoms of COVID-19 who has not had a COVID-19 viral test following onset of symptoms shall not attend an in-person hearing and shall contact the Deputy Commissioner.

Any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 and has had symptoms of COVID-19 shall not attend an in-person hearing and shall contact the Deputy Commissioner unless at least 5 days have passed since symptom onset and 24 hours with no fever and without the use of fever-reducing medications has passed and other COVID-19 symptoms are improving. Additionally, any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 and has had symptoms of COVID-19 shall wear a high-quality mask while attending any in-person Industrial Commission hearing for an additional 5 days after the end of the isolation period.

Any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 but has had no symptoms of COVID-19 shall not attend an in-person Industrial Commission hearing and shall not contact the Deputy Commissioner unless at least 5 days have passed.

Any person who has no symptoms of COVID-19 and has not tested positive for COVID-19 but who has, at any time during the 10-day period prior to an in-person Industrial Commission hearing, had a known contact with another person who has COVID-19 shall wear a high-quality mask at all times during the hearing.

Read the full list of revised in-person Industrial Commission hearings here.

In-Person Full Commission Hearing Guidelines

Any person with symptoms of COVID-19 who has not had a COVID-19 viral test following onset of the symptoms shall not attend an in-person Full Commission hearing and shall contact Counsel to the Panel Chair.

Any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 and has had symptoms of COVID-19 shall not attend an in-person Full Commission hearing and shall contact Counsel to the Panel Chair unless at least 5 days have passed since symptom onset and 24 hours with no fever and without the use of fever-reducing medications has passed and other COVID-19 symptoms are improving. Additionally, any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 and has had symptoms of COVID-19 shall wear a high-quality mask while attending any in-person Full Commission hearing for an additional 5 days after the end of the isolation period.

Any person who has tested positive for COVID-19 but has had no symptoms of COVID-19 shall not attend an in-person Full Commission hearing and shall contact Counsel to the Panel Chair unless at least 5 days have passed since the positive COVID-19 test.

Any person who has no symptoms of COVID-19 and has not tested positive for COVID-19 but who has, at any time during the 10-day period prior to an in-person Full Commission hearing, had a known contact with another person who has COVID-19 shall wear a high-quality mask at all times during the in-person Full Commission hearing.

Read the full list of revised in-person Full Commission hearings here.

Important Memo to All Carriers, Third-Party Administrators, and Self-Insured Employers: Rule 11 NCAC 23A.0109(d) Requirement to Provide Commission with General Email Address for Service of Claim-Related Documents

Pursuant to Rule 11 NCAC 23A.0109(d), all carriers, third-party administrators, and self-insured employers are required to provide the Commission with an email address for service of claim-related documents in cases where the Commission does not have email contact information for a specific representative assigned to the claim. The Rule requires a general email address for receipt of letters and notices related to claims when the Commission has NOT been advised of a specific person handling the claim. Once the Commission has been advised of a specific representative assigned to the claim, correspondence regarding the claim will be sent directly to that person.

Written by: Kyla Block

A trip and fall. Injury by machinery. Exposure to asbestos leading to a diagnosis of mesothelioma. These are life-changing events for employees (and employers) that may lead to a slurry of workers’ compensation claims. When the worst happens to an injured employee and his or her family is left behind, the Workers’ Compensation Act details the steps employers, insurance carriers, and administrators must take, as well as what family can anticipate in the aftermath of loss. The Act explains the scope of death benefits, including the different kinds of beneficiaries that may exist and how they will be allocated compensation. Considering key litigation helps to demonstrate how the statutes are applied in practice.

Who Can Be a Beneficiary?

According to the Act, a beneficiary may be someone wholly dependent on the employee, or they may be only partially dependent. If only one person is deemed to be wholly dependent, then he or she will receive the entire share of benefits. The Act considers widows, widowers, and children to be whole dependents. If there are multiple individuals who are deemed to be wholly dependent, then the compensation they receive will be divided among them “according to the relative extent of their dependency (Section 97-39).”

Partial dependents, unlike whole dependents, receive benefits in proportion to the amount of support they received from the deceased employee at the time of his injury. If there are neither whole nor partial dependents, compensation is assigned to whoever may be “next of kin.” These may include adult children, brothers and sisters, or parents. Next of kin, in the absence of whole or partial dependents, will receive the full compensation owed in a lump sum. In the absence of next of kin or dependents of any kind, no compensation death benefits will be paid. However, the employer must still pay for funeral expenses.

What Compensation Do Beneficiaries Receive?

Typically, beneficiaries to the compensation of a deceased employee will be due 66 and 2/3 percent of the employee’s average weekly wages calculated at the time of his or her injury. Benefits will be paid at this rate for 500 weeks from the date the employee dies. However, dependent children will continue to receive benefits beyond 500 weeks until they reach 18 years. Finally, if the deceased’s widow or widower is physically or mentally unable to care for themselves as of the time the employee’s death, then the widow or widower will continue to receive benefits throughout life until or if they should remarry.

Examples from NC Case Law

Prior litigation highlights the nuances in how our courts consider and apply death benefits owed under the Act. For example, Deese v. Southern Law and Tree Expert Company (1982) provides guidance on what happens if the pool of eligible beneficiaries pass away. The North Carolina Supreme Court considered the case of Charles W. Deese, who died following his compensable injury. At the time of his death, Deese was married with three dependent children under the age of 18. As his children reached 18 years, they would become ineligible to receive further compensation. Deese’s family argued that the amount of compensation no longer paid to children who reached 18 years should be reassessed and lumped into the amount remaining for any children who had not yet reached adulthood. To reassess the amount owed to remaining dependents would essentially increase the amount remaining beneficiaries could claim. However, the Court found that the only timeline during which apportioned benefits could be changed would be within the first 400 weeks. The Court further noted that the Act is not intended to “provide…the equivalent of general accident, health, or life insurance.” Thus, the amount of death benefits owed to dependents cannot be reapportioned when the 400 weeks have elapsed, even if dependents age out and are no longer eligible to receive benefits.

Not just anyone can claim death benefits. The NC Supreme Court has made key decisions regarding who may–and may not–be considered a beneficiary. In Fields v. Hollowell & Hollowell (1953), the Court considered the possibility of awarding death benefits to a long-time unmarried partner. Following the death of the employee, William Edward McMillan, the Industrial Commission awarded death benefits to the deceased’s mother. Of note, McMillan’s mother was not reliant upon him financially–she was awarded benefits as “next of kin,” and not as a dependent. McMillan’s cohabitating partner, Julia Mae Fields, appealed on the grounds that she was dependent on the deceased and should receive death benefits. The Court found that not only was it “alien to the customs and ideas of our people” to allow the same benefits to a cohabitating couple as it would to a married one, but it would also pave the path to denigrate the rights of the “legitimate claims of helpless defendants.” The Court denied Fields’ claim for benefits, reversed the decision of the Court of Appeals, and remanded the case to the Industrial Commission to award its initial denial of her claims.

If death occurs following occupational illness instead of one-time accidental injury, prior litigation explains what beneficiaries and employers can anticipate. In the seminal case of Booker v. Duke Medical Center (1979), the NC Supreme Court considered the claims of the family of Michael Booker. Booker worked as a laboratory technician at Duke Medical Center. As a part of his job duties, Booker regularly handled unmarked blood samples contaminated with serum hepatitis. Several years into his employment, he contracted serum hepatitis. After filing a claim for workers’ compensation benefits, Booker subsequently died from his illness. The Industrial Commission granted death benefits to his surviving wife and four children. When Duke and the insurance carriers appealed, the Court of Appeals reversed the awardThe case then went before the NC Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court considered whether serum hepatitis could be considered an occupational disease and under what statute Booker’s dependents could claim death benefits: the statute in effect at the time of Booker’s initial worker’s compensation claim, or the amended statute in effect at the time of his death. While the Court of Appeals argued that the statue governing death benefits should be the one in effect when Booker became sick, the Supreme Court stated that the determining statute should be the one in effect at the time of Booker’s death, since “these amendments were made applicable to cases originating on and after their effective date.” Additionally, the Supreme Court held that Booker’s disease was occupational, even though it was admittedly a disease that any person could contract. Key for the Supreme Court was expert testimony noting that, though serum hepatitis is not a disease specific to laboratory technicians, Booker’s occupational exposure to the disease vastly exceeded that of the general population, putting him at significant occupational risk. The Supreme Court reversed the decision of the Court of Appeals and returned the matter to the Industrial Commission to award benefits to Booker’s family.

In Conclusion

In Deese, the Court explained, “in all cases of doubt, the intent of the legislature regarding the operation or application of a…provision is to be discerned from a consideration of the Act as a whole–its language, purposes and spirit.” The Act details the circumstances under which someone can be considered a beneficiary and claim death benefits. When seeking clarity on how to file for and pay out death benefits claims due to compensable workplace injury or occupational disease, employers and beneficiaries should look to the statutes and existing prior case law to understand how courts will interpret and apply these regulations, as well as under what circumstances exceptions do and do not exist.

Written by John Tomei

When employees in North Carolina sustain injuries by accident arising out of and in the course of their employment with employers, their ensuing workers’ compensation claims are generally compensable. However, what if the injured worker is a subcontractor? And, does it matter if the injured subcontractor is uninsured?

What if the injured worker is a subcontractor?

The answer to the first question is determined by the analysis of whether the worker was an employee or an independent subcontractor at the time of the injury. Many employers mistakenly believe that simply calling  workers “independent contractors” or “subcontractors” and paying them cash or with a Form 1099 makes their workers independent or subcontractors.  That is often not the case. Rather, in North Carolina, it is a multi-factored analysis as to whether an injured worker is an employee or an independent contractor, with the ultimate test being whether the contracting entity had the right to control the details of the injured worker’s work.

Some of the factors the Industrial Commission considers are whether the injured worker (1) was engaged in an independent business, calling, or occupation; (2) whether they had independent use of their special skill,  knowledge or training; (3) whether they were doing a specified piece of work at a fixed price, for a lump sum,  or on a quantitative basis; (4) whether they are not subject to discharge for choosing their method of work; (5) whether they are in the regular employ of the other contracting party; (6) whether they are free to hire assistants; (7) whether they have full control over their assistants; and (8) whether they select their own time. No single factor is determinative. Instead, the ultimate test is whether the contracting entity had the right to control the details of the injured worker’s work.

These cases are all fact-specific and often require careful factual and legal analysis. Some at the Commission give the benefit of any factual doubts to the injured worker. Moreover, if the injured worker was paid by the hour, the Commission will often give that factor great weight and find that the injured worker was an employee rather than an independent contractor, such that the worker’s claim would be found compensable.

Does it matter if the subcontractor is uninsured?

If the injured worker is a subcontractor, and they are uninsured for workers’ compensation purposes, can they successfully argue that the statutory employment protections of N.C.G.S.  97-19 should nonetheless apply to enable them to obtain workers’ compensation benefits? Fortunately for contracting entities and their carriers, the answer is likely “No.”

N.C.G.S. 97-19 provides, in relevant part, the following:

…shall be liable, irrespective of whether such subcontractor has regularly in service fewer than three employees in the same business within this State, to the same extent as such subcontractor would be if he were subject to the provisions of this Article for the payment of compensation and other benefits under this Article on account of the injury or death of any employee of such subcontractor due to an accident arising out of and in the course of the performance of the work covered by such subcontract. N.C.G.S. Ann. 97-19.

In an earlier version of the statute, the class of persons protected by this provision included not only employees of the subcontractor, but also the subcontractor himselfSoutherland v. B.V. Hedrick Gravel & Sand Co., 345 N.C. 739, 483 S.E.2d (1997). However, in 1995, the General Assembly reinstated the pre-1987 language of N.C.G.S. 97-19 by deleting ” any such subcontractor, any principal or partner of such subcontractor or” preceding “any employee of such subcontractor” effective June 10, 1996. Boone v. Vincent, 127 N.C. App. 604, 609, 492 S.E.2d 356, 359 (1997), cert. denied, 347 N.C.573, 498 S.E.2d 377 (1998). (citing 1995 N.C. Sess. Laws ch. 555 sec.1).

Consequently, the current Act only protects injured employees of a subcontractor, and not the uninsured, injured subcontractor himself. Obviously, subcontractors can choose to purchase workers’ compensation insurance coverage to protect themselves, in addition to their employees, in the event of a work-related injury.

Claims Handling Practice Tips

At the inception of a claim, insurance carriers and their adjusters need to thoroughly investigate and confirm whether the injured worker was an employee or an independent subcontractor, bearing in mind the factors mentioned above.  If the injured worker is a subcontractor and uninsured, the Act does not provide any protection for that injured subcontractor. Rather, under the statutory employment scheme of N.C.G.S. 97-19, only injured employees of subcontractors are protected by the coverage, which is afforded by the general contractor’s workers’ compensation policy.

Written by: Lindsay Underwood

A recent May 2022 decision from the North Carolina Court of Appeals provides a refresher on the “eggshell plaintiff rule” and taking your claimant how you find them. In Kluttz-Ellison v. Noah’s Playloft Preschool, the claimant sustained two separate incidents to the knees while working as the owner and director of a preschool. One incident took place in 2013, while the claimant was changing a lightbulb, and one took place in 2015, when she tripped over a student’s sleeping cot. Both claims were found to be compensable.

The claimant was ultimately referred for a revision replacement surgery for the right knee, as well as a total knee replacement for the left knee. Before she could undergo the same, her physician opined that she needed to lose a significant amount of weight to get the surgery. Unfortunately, the claimant was unable to lose weight on her own, and the physician recommended a bariatric surgery to assist with weight loss. The parties proceeded to hearing on the issue of weight loss and the need for bariatric surgery. The claimant testified she had tried to lose weight on her own using various diets. The Deputy Commissioner found the claimant’s need for a right knee revision surgery and repair of hardware loosening were not related to the compensable work injury, and, thus, the bariatric surgery, was unrelated as well. The claimant’s claims for the surgeries were denied.

The claimant appealed to the Full Commission. Notably, during the appeals process, the claimant underwent the right knee revision surgery and bariatric surgery on her own. The Full Commission reversed, concluding her right knee condition, treatment, and, now completed, right knee revision surgery was compensable. The Full Commission initially concluded her need for weight loss treatment/bariatric surgery was not directly related to her injury but following a Motion for Reconsideration and a Motion to Allow Additional Evidence filed by the claimant, the Full Commission amended the Opinion and Award. Though the Full Commission did not admit additional evidence, they concluded the bariatric surgery was medically necessary as a precedent to her compensable right knee surgery.

Defendants appealed to the Court of Appeals. The Court noted the claimant’s bariatric surgeon testified it was standard practice to not allow a patient to have knee replacement surgery until their BMI is under 40. Further, the surgeon testified that the claimant had fully participated in efforts to lose weight on her own. Thus, the only way for her to get her BMI under 40 so she could undergo the medically necessary knee replacement revision, was to have bariatric surgery. Further, the claimant needed surgery for both knees, and her authorized treating physician testified that it was an emergent weight loss requirement to get her BMI under 40 before she could undergo the surgeries.

The Court of Appeals cited N.C.G.S. §97-25, and the definition of medical compensation including “other treatment” such as payment of medical expenses incurred as a result of bariatric surgery because it was medically necessary to help her achieve an optimal BMI to allow her to undergo the right knee replacement revision. The question then became whether her need for bariatric surgery was directly related to the work injury. Applying the Act liberally, the Court of Appeals rejected Defendants’ argument that the claimant’s weight issues preexisted the work injury and were not therefore directly related to the compensable claim. Instead, they noted a direct line of causation connecting the dots between the compensable injury and the Commission’s award for bariatric surgery. As the bariatric surgeon testified that, due to physical limitations (the need for bilateral knee surgeries), she could not lose weight fast enough on her own, her need for bariatric surgery was directly related to the compensable injury.

Employers are often frustrated by the “tangential” medical treatments that come up while a claimant is receiving treatment for a compensable condition. Unfortunately, defendants take their claimant as they find them, and this decision only confirms that the Commission, and the Court of Appeals, will require defendants to take steps to return the claimant to their pre-injury status, even if it includes providing treatment like bariatric surgery, weight loss programs, and smoking cessation efforts.

Implications for Defendants

A key point was that the physician testified that the claimant had made her best efforts with other weight loss treatment, such that the bariatric surgery was the only remaining option. A motion to compel the claimant to comply with medical treatment is a potential option if defendants are ordered to pay for weight loss to treat a compensable work-related injury. The claimant will have to show up at meetings and comply with preliminary weight loss programs or they could jeopardize their benefits due to noncompliance with medical treatment. What is clear from this case is that Defendants should not have to immediately pay for the most expensive treatment modality, and the claimant still has to make efforts on their own via less-expensive options.

Written by Tracey Jones and Heather Baker 

On July 26, 2022, the Full Commission issued another extended benefits decision, Messick v. Walmart Stores, Inc. The panel consisted of Vice-Chair Griffin, Commissioner Taylor and Commissioner Goodman.  In this case, the Full Commission awarded the claimant extended benefits. The issue of extended benefits was not an issue at the Deputy Commissioner level. The Deputy Commissioner issued an Opinion and Award finding compensable aggravations to claimant’s pre-existing left knee condition and mental health condition, awarded ongoing TTD benefits, and ordered payment for claimant’s dental treatment related to a post-accident fall. Defendants did not appeal the findings or conclusions related to causation, but appealed on the issue of whether the first date of disability versus the date of injury was controlling in regard to determining the indemnity benefits and/or extended benefits owed to claimant under N.C.G.S. § 97-29.

Claimant sustained two compensable injuries; one to her lumbar spine and another to her right knee. Her lumbar spine injury was pre-2011 statutory reform and her right knee injury was post-2011 reform. Both injuries were accepted by Defendants. Defendants also authorized benefits for psychological treatment as a part of the claim. Ultimately, claimant required, among other treatment, a spinal cord stimulator, a knee replacement surgery, and a knee replacement revision procedure, along with increased psychological treatment for depression, which included a 20-day psychological support and physical reconditioning program where she weaned off Oxycodone. Eventually, claimant’s left knee became problematic, and she required a left total knee replacement, which claimant’s doctor opined was the result of her accepted right knee injury. She was ultimately assessed with failed back syndrome, chronic low lumbar pain, and chronic knee pain.

As a part of litigation, the parties deposed nine experts, consisting of claimant’s medical providers and claimant’s vocational expert. In terms of disability, many providers deferred to other providers and/or a vocational expert, and claimant was assigned permanent sedentary restrictions with no repetitive bending or stooping; no lifting more than twenty pounds; no twisting; no kneeling; no climbing ladders or stairs; no walking more than forty yards at a time; and no sitting or standing for more than thirty minutes at a time. The claimant’s vocational expert concluded that there was no reasonable vocational probability that claimant would be able to secure a job and maintain gainful employment. He testified she had a total loss of wage-earning capacity, despite noting that claimant expressed multiple times she would prefer to be working and productive.

The good news is the Full Commission, in keeping with it’s other extend benefits decisions, clearly states that the standard in extended benefits cases is different than the normal standard for proving entitlement to temporary total disability benefits.  Applying the revised standard set forth in the 2011 revisions to N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-29(c), the Full Commission reiterated that to establish entitlement to extended compensation, a plaintiff must show that they have a total loss of the ability to earn wages in any employment.  See N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-29(c) (2021).

However, the Full Commission found the vocational expert’s opinion credible and concluded there were no jobs in the job market within claimant’s functional capabilities. The Commission found ongoing disability for claimant’s pre-reform injury, and the Commission also found a total loss of wage-earning capacity due to her compensable injury for the second post-reform injury. Claimant was awarded ongoing medical benefits and TTD benefits for the pre-reform injury until claimant returns to work or until further order by the Commission and awarded extended benefits for the post-reform injury.  The Commission focused on claimant’s chronic pain, age, and length of time from being in any academic situation and relied on the only vocational expert to testify in the case to conclude that claimant has sustained a total loss of her wage-earning capacity.

Takeaways for Defendants

This Opinion and Award once again demonstrates the importance of expert testimony in these extended benefit cases.  The physicians deposed all found claimant’s pain complaints credible and either would not comment on claimant’s ability to work or deferred to a vocational expert as to whether there were jobs available that claimant could perform.  The only vocational expert that was deposed clearly testified that claimant had suffered a total loss of wage-earning capacity because of her restrictions and chronic pain complaints.  In order for defendants to successfully defend these cases, they must retain or have testimony from both medical and vocational experts that the claimant has some wage earning capacity.  If defendants can successfully present this evidence, past cases suggest that they will prevail and extended benefits will not be awarded.

Our team will continue to monitor the developments as this issue works its way through our court system. 


If you have questions or wish to discuss how to best position yourself in potential extended benefits matters, please reach out to Tracey Jones or a member of our Workers’ Compensation Team. 

Written by: Matt Marriott

Over the last year, we have seen an uptick in claimant attorneys requesting a second opinion on treatment options under N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b) and that defendants 1) issue a prepayment for that visit and 2) pay beyond the NCIC fee schedule amount for the visit.

Claimant attorneys argue there are not any medical providers in North Carolina who will accept payment of just the fee schedule amount for second opinion visits and do not require any prepayment.  Therefore, they contend they are being deprived of their right to a second opinion on treatment options under N.C. Gen. Stat. 97-25(b) if defendants do not pay a prepayment as well as more than the fee schedule amount for the visit.  Additionally, many attempt to argue that the NCIC Fee Schedule does not specifically lay out a billing code for second opinion on treatment options visits under N.C. Gen. Stat. 97-25(b).

While there is no binding case law from the NC Court of Appeals or Supreme Court on these issues, the Full Commission issued a decision in May 2022 that provides a comprehensive analysis explaining:

  • Defendants do not need to pay any kind of prepayment for a second opinion under N.C. Gen. Stat. 97-25(b),
  • Defendants do not need to pay beyond the fee schedule for that visit, and
  • The fee schedule amount for a N.C. Gen. Stat. 97-25(b) second opinion is $301.23.

Commissioners Taylor, Phillips, and Goodman explained in Wyatt v. The Golden Mint, Inc., I.C. No. 20-038523 (May 2022), that N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-90 continues to prevent medical providers from forcing defendants to pay any kind of prepayment for a visit.  The Commission specifically stated:

The charges assessed by healthcare providers for medical compensation under the Act are subject to the approval of the Commission.  N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-90(a) (2021).  No “physician or hospital or other medical facilities shall be entitled to collect fees from an employer or insurance carrier until he has made the reports required by the Commission in connection with the case.”  Id.  “[A] request for a specific prior approval to charge shall be submitted to the Commission for each such fee or charge.”  Id.  Any health care provider who willfully or intentionally undertakes to submit charges for health care that was not furnished is subject to an administrative penalty, assessed by the Commission, not to exceed ten thousand dollars.  N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-88.3(a)(1) (2021).  The clear intent of N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 97-26 and 97-90 “is to assure that medical and related expenses incurred by an injured employee for which the employer or his insurance carrier is to be liable shall be kept within reasonable and appropriate limits, and the responsibility for the enforcement of these limits rests upon the Industrial Commission.”  Morse v. Curtis, 20 N.C. App. 96, 99, 200 S.E.2d 832, 834 (1973), cert denied, 285, N.C. 86, 203 S.E.2d 58 (1974). Wyatt at 9-10.

In addition to confirming in Wyatt that N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-90 prevents defendants from being compelled to pay a prepayment for a second opinion, the Commission also confirmed N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-26 prevents defendants from having to pay beyond the fee schedule for a N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b) second opinion evaluation on treatment options.  The Commission held:

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-26(a) requires the Commission to adopt by rule a schedule of maximum fees for medical compensation.  The Commission, pursuant to that mandate and in compliance with the North Carolina Administrative Procedure Act, 150B et seq., has adopted 11 NCAC 23 Subchapter J Fees for Medical Compensation.  11 NCAC 23J .102(b)(1) sets the maximum reimbursement rate for professional services for evaluation & management at 140 percent of the Medicare base amount.  While the Act also contemplates instances in which the fee schedule does not apply to a particular type of service and in those instances, the maximum reimbursement to which the provider is entitled is “the usual, customary, and reasonable charge for the service or treatment rendered,” this option is only available when the Fee Schedule does not apply.  See N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-26(c) (2021).  The Commission, in its discretion, takes judicial notice of American Medical Association, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) (4th ed. 2019) and specifically the full description of CPT code 99456.  Id. at 43.  Pursuant to the North Carolina Rules of Evidence, the Commission concludes that this information is capable of accurate and ready determination by resort to sources whose accuracy cannot reasonably be questioned.  See N.C. Gen. Stat. §8C-1, Rule 201(b) and (c).  In this instance, the fee schedule’s enumeration of services for “evaluation & management” and the CPT code 99456 description in its entirety contemplates examination by a non-treating physician with a medical history, exam with a diagnosis, assessment of capabilities and impairment, “development of future medical treatment plan; and completion of necessary documentation . . . .”  A 97-25(b) second opinion examination encompasses an extensive medical history, a physical exam, diagnosis, assessment of capabilities and impairment, and development of future medical treatment plan.  Thus, the Medical Fee Schedule and specifically CPT code 99456 contemplate and encompass the professional services involved in a second opinion examination. Wyatt at 8-9.

After verifying that defendants do not have to pay beyond the fee schedule for a second opinion evaluation on treatment options under N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b), the Commission established that $301.23 was the correct amount under the fee schedule for a second opinion under N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b), as laid out in CPT code 99456.

Practice Pointers and Takeaways

A decision from the Full Commission is not binding case law in the same way an opinion from the NC Court of Appeals or Supreme Court would be.  With that said, Wyatt establishes that the Full Commission sides with defendants about not being responsible for any kind of prepayment when a plaintiff requests a N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b) second opinion evaluation on treatment options, and about not being responsible for payment beyond the fee schedule for such a visit.

While this issue remains a hot topic and could evolve in the future once the appellate courts address the issue, for now, defendants are within their rights to not issue any prepayment or pay beyond the fee schedule when a plaintiff attorney is demanding that those conditions be met.

Finally, based on Wyatt, CPT code 99456 is the correct billing code to apply to a second opinion evaluation under N.C. Gen. Stat. § 97-25(b), and the correct fee schedule amount is $301.23 for such a visit.

Written by: John Tomei

In these challenging economic times, which include inflation and rising costs of workers’ compensation coverage, one way employers can reduce their workers compensation insurance coverage costs is to request the inclusion in their policies of deductible provisions. In addition to premium cost savings, deductible plans can improve employers’ cash flow, provide increased tax deductions, and allow for more control over workers’ compensation costs.

An excellent source of information regarding workers’ compensation insurance deductibles can be found in the North Carolina Rate Bureau’s North Carolina Workers Compensation Basic Manual, particularly in Rule 5 – Policy and Endorsements, sections of which are referenced in italics below. Rule 5 – Policy and Endorsements of the North Carolina Workers Compensation Basic Manual

In North Carolina, each insurer transacting or offering to transact workers’ compensation insurance in North Carolina may offer deductibles to employers.  Deductible coverage is affected by attaching the Benefits Deductible Endorsement, WC 00 06 03 to the policy. However, it is important to know that an insurer is not required to offer a deductible to an employer.

To the extent an insurer is agreeable to offering a deductible to an employer, deductibles may be available for total combined medical and indemnity benefits in amounts of $100, $200, $300, $400, $500, $1,000, $1,500, $2,000, $2,500, and $5,000 per claim. A selected deductible applies on a per claim basis.  More specifically, the deductible must apply separately to each claim for bodily injury by accident or disease.

A deductible does not affect the claims adjustment process. If a claim occurs, the insurer will investigate the injury, pay providers for medical treatment, and make disability payments to eligible workers. The insurer will then bill the employer for the deductible portion of the claim.  As noted in the Manual, the claim is first paid by the insurer, which will then be reimbursed by the employer for any deductible amounts paid by the insurer.  The employer is liable for reimbursement up to the limit of the deductible chosen.  The payment or nonpayment of deductible amounts by the employer to the insurer is treated under the policy insuring the liability for workers’ compensation in the same manner as payment or nonpayment of premiums.

The applicable loss elimination ratio (LER) represents the percentage of losses removed when an employer is responsible for losses up to the deductible amount. LERs vary by deductible amount and hazard group.  As one might expect, the LER is a key variable used in determining the policy premium credit.

So, the good news for employers in North Carolina is that deductibles are permissible, with varied amounts, on a per claim basis. The insurer pays the claim, and then seeks payment of its deductible from the employer thereafter. If the employer does not repay the insurer for the deductible amount paid by the insurer, then it is treated as non-payment of a premium. Understandably, the amount of the deductible has an impact on the loss elimination ratio (LER), which is used to calculate the policy premium credit.

Written by: Lindsay Underwood

The North Carolina Court of Appeals issued a new decision concerning medical treatment, and what evidence is necessary to prove causation and establish compensability.

In Mahone v. Home Fix Custom Remodeling, the claimant worked for a home remodeling company. On July 24, 2018, the claimant climbed into the attic of a potential customer to take measurements for an estimate and the floor beneath him collapsed. The claimant fell twenty feet and landed in the staircase area of the lower level of the home. He suffered severe injuries to his cervical and thoracic spine, and fractured ribs on his left side. When EMS responded to the injury, the claimant was unconscious. The claimant underwent an immediate surgery for his spinal injuries. Following surgery, a cognitive screening and mental assessment was completed to evaluate for a possible traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was determined inpatient neuropsychological services were not warranted, though the claimant was provided with verbal and written information regarding treatment for a mild TBI. On November 2, 2018, Dr. Lance Goetz wrote a letter stating the claimant was hospitalized and under his care. In that letter, Dr. Goetz stated the claimant had incurred a traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness. Dr. Goetz was not deposed as part of the case, and the physician who was deposed did not provide an opinion on the TBI or causation either in his records or during his testimony.

Defendants denied the claim on the basis that there was no employer/employee relationship. At the Deputy Commissioner level, the main issues presented were whether the claimant was permanently and totally disabled, and what attendant care the claimant was entitled to. Following the hearing, Defendants accepted compensability of the spine, rib fractures, and hematoma of the parietal bone. The TBI was not accepted. The Deputy Commissioner found that claimant had failed to present evidence regarding how many hours per day he required attendant care, or the appropriate rate of care. Further, it was not yet possible to determine whether the claimant met the requirements for permanent total disability. The claimant appealed to the Full Commission. The Commission entered an Opinion and Award finding the claimant had not presented sufficient medical evidence of causation linking his TBI to the July 24, 2018 incident, and, thus, the claimant was not entitled to medical compensation for the treatment of his TBI. The Commission found the claimant required attendant care but there was insufficient evidence in the record on which to base such an award. Both parties appealed to the Court of Appeals.

The Court ultimately found the Commission applied the incorrect legal standard in denying that the claimant’s TBI was not compensable. The Court opined the Commission erred in stating that the claimant was required to present expert testimony, either at a hearing or deposition, to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, that the TBI was causally related to the accident. The Court held the appropriate standard is that the claimant is required to present expert opinion evidence, not necessarily in the form of testimony, that it is likely that the accident caused the claimant’s injury. Thus, the letter written by Dr. Goetz in which he opined that the claimant’s TBI was likely the result of his July 24, 2018 incident was sufficient to establish causation. The Court reversed the Commission’s Opinion and Award with respect to the compensability of the claimant’s TBI and remanded to the Commission to make findings and conclusions applying the correct standards of proof.

Implications for Defendants

Though we do not have the final decision on remand, this case is a good reminder that if you want to contest compensability or causation of a specific aspect of the claim, you must have evidence to combat the claimant’s evidence, even if said evidence is in the form of a letter or a medical record. In this case, it was likely assumed that since Dr. Goetz did not testify, and did not provide an opinion specifically to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, that his causation opinion would not be sufficient. The Court of Appeals clearly disagreed, and specifically noted that testimony is not required by the Court to establish causation. All that is necessary is opinion evidence. In the event you are presented with a medical report or correspondence from a physician, in which it appears causation is established, even if not to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, it is a necessary next step for defendants to obtain counter evidence, and take deposition testimony of both the claimant’s physician, and any IME or 2nd opinion physician, to support the defense.

Written by: Julie Hooten, Tracey Jones, and Shivani Shah

In a recent decision issued by the North Carolina Court of Appeals, Judge Chris Dillion remanded Blackwell v. N.C. Dep’t of Pub. Instruction back to the Full Commission where a claimant’s appeal to convert her weekly benefits to a single, lump-sum award was denied.

Background of the Case

The claimant was a former high school teacher who was injured on the job breaking up a fight.  She was diagnosed with multiple physical and mental injuries and the Full Commission found her to be permanently and totally disabled and awarded weekly benefits. The claimant later requested her award to be converted into a single, lump-sum payment, as per by N.C. Gen. Stat. §97-44 (2018).  Both the Deputy Commissioner and the Full Commission denied her request and she appealed. The sole issue on appeal was whether the Commission erred in concluding that a lump-sum award under Section 97-44 is never allowed where the sum of future installments is uncertain. The Commission relied on the “Uncommuted Value Clause” of N.C. Gen. Stat. §97-44 and reasoned that it prohibits any lump-sum award which would exceed the sum of the future installments that are being replaced. The Commission denied the claimant’s request on the basis that a lump sum award was not allowed in any situation where the number of future payments was uncertain.  Under the original Opinion and Award, the claimant was eligible to receive weekly benefits for the rest of her life.  As a result, the number of future installments the claimant was entitled to receive was unknowable because her weekly compensation could be terminated upon her death or a showing that she is capable of returning to suitable employment.  The Commission thus concluded that a lump-sum award could exceed the amount she would have otherwise received had she continued to receive her benefits in weekly installments.

In its decision, the Court of Appeals noted that it has held that awards for permanent disability may be paid in weekly installments or in one lump sum.  The Court acknowledged that the Commission has the authority, in unusual cases, to award a lump-sum even where the sum of future benefits is not certain, if there is competent evidence tending to show how long the claimant was reasonably likely to receive future benefits.  Competent evidence would include a mortality table to determine life expectancy.  The Court also indicated that the Commission should discount the sum of expected future benefits when there is competent evidence to set an appropriate discount rate.

The Court’s decision was, essentially, a roadmap for the Commission.  First, the Commission should determine whether the claimant has shown her situation to be an “unusual case.”  Second, the Commission should consider any competent evidence, such as the mortality table in N.C. Gen. Stat. §8-46, to determine the number of installments that the claimant is expected to receive under her current award. Lastly, in calculating the award, the Commission may discount the expected future installments to a present value.

Implications for Defendants

The Court of Appeals established steps for the Commission to determine whether a lump-sum award is appropriate.  The conclusion by the Court of Appeals that a lump sum payment for ongoing weekly installments may be an option is concerning for defendants in workers’ compensation cases.  In permanent and total cases, it would behoove the Plaintiff’s Bar to request a lump sum payment in every case in order to collect a fee and ensure their client receives the most benefits he or she can get.  However, the Court of Appeals did note that the lump sum award should be ”in the best interest of the employee” and that phrase should be “construed narrowly.”  The Court specifically said that trying to reduce credit card debt would not be a reason to grant such an award.

It will be interesting to see how the Commission defines “unusual” in this case.  If it is read narrowly, defendants may not have as much to worry about and the implications of this case may be minimal, but if the Commission defines “unusual” broadly, defendants will surely see the ramifications of this case for years to come. We will continue to monitor this case to determine its full impact.

If you have questions about the recent court decision, or other aspects of a workers’ compensation claim in North Carolina, reach out to a member of our Workers’ Compensation team.

Written by: Matthew Flammia

In North Carolina, an injured employee may recover damages from both the workers’ compensation carrier as well as a third-party tortfeasor. In accepted claims, where a third-party causes the compensable injury, the workers’ compensation carrier is provided an automatic lien against any third-party recovery that the injured employee receives arising out of the compensable incident. North Carolina General Statute § 97-10.2 even creates a right for the workers’ compensation carrier to seek subrogation against the third party independently.

According to the statute, the injured employee has the exclusive right to file a suit against the third-party for twelve (12) months. Thereafter, the workers’ compensation carrier has the right to file a subrogation claim until sixty (60) days before the expiration of the statute of limitations. Finally, the injured employee and workers’ compensation carrier can always work together and jointly pursue the third-party claim.

Practice Tip for Insurers

If there has been an accepted workers’ compensation claim caused by a third-party tortfeasor, insurance carriers may have subrogation rights, and there is a chance that an insurer could recover some of the money paid towards the claim. If the injury is caused by third-party negligence, immediately place all parties on notice of the insurer’s subrogation rights and begin to investigate the claim on the best way to recover money paid towards the claim.

If you have questions about subrogation rights or other aspects of a workers’ compensation claim in North Carolina, reach out to Matthew Flammia or a member of our Workers’ Compensation team.